temperate grassland soil quality

Meadow steppe has the plant community dominated by Carex duriuscula, Leymus chinensis, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Filifolium sibiricum, and Stipa capillata (Lin et al. California Privacy Statement, Oecologia 189(3):769–779. Correlations between soil quality index and selected soil and plant characteristics, Pearson correlation analysis between soil quality index and indices of soil microbial and nematode communities, Correlation between the beta diversity of soil microbial/nematode communities (Bray-Curtis distance) and the soil quality index distance (Euclidean distance) along the grassland degradation gradient (based on n = 36 soil samples). 2010). In temperate regions, grassland provides most of the feed requirements for ruminants. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13013, Xu DW, Chen BR, Yan RR, Yan YC, Sun XB, Xu LJ, Xin XP (2019) Quantitative monitoring of grazing intensity in the temperate meadow steppe based on remote sensing data. Soil samples were collected using soil cores (2.5 cm) at 0–15 cm depth, and then mixed together as a composite sample for each replicate. Grassland degradation causes the loss of biodiversity and leads to ecosystem function degradation (Gang et al. soil quality. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, Coppinger KD, Reiners WA, Burke IC & Olson RK (1991) Net erosion on a sagebrush steppe landscape as determined by cesium-137 distribution. AU - Orr, Robert. Temperate grassland. This study is limited by the range of temperature regime. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.04.019, CAS  Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Robles MD & Burke IC (1997) Legume, grass, and Conservation Reserve Program effects on recovery of soil organic matter pools and nutrient availability. Arid Env. This is a preview of subscription content, Aerts R & De Caluwe H (1997) Nutritional and plant-mediated controls on leaf litter decomposition of Carex species. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3553, Ren JZ, Hu ZZ, Zhao J, Zhang DG, Hou FJ, Lin HL, Mu XD (2008) A grassland classification system and its application in China. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1084-y. 2017). 2002a; Brejda et al. There are also evergreen temperate forests, which are mixes of coniferous and deciduous plants. AU - Murray, Philip. 41877047). If the correlation coefficient between variables was more than 0.60, the variable was considered redundant and eliminated from the MDS (Andrews et al. 2014). Lipids were extracted from 4 g of freeze-dried soil using a chloroform-methanol-citrate buffer mixture (1:2:0.8), and the phospholipids were separated from neutral lipids and glycolipids on a SPE tube (Supelco Inc., Bellefonte). https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2012.0092. Similar patterns were also found in the soil nematode community. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0016-7061(03)00039-9, Kim HT (1998) Soil reaction. Am. Ecol. Principles of Soil Chemistry. Total carbon and root shoot ratio were highly weighted indicators retained in PC1 and PC2 (Table 2). Our results indicate that soil quality index based on the minimum data sets could effectively assess the influence of grassland degradation on soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. Plant Soil 171: 203–208, Inouye RS & Tilman D (1995) Convergence and divergence of old-field vegetation after 11 yr of nitrogen addition. 84: 433–441, Wedin DA & Tilman D (1996) Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands. 2019), so the reduction of plant communities may result in the decrease of AMF in degraded grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 121:193–201. Soc. Ecol. Princeton, NJ, Tilman D (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Ecol. J Mt Sci-Engl 7(2):187–196. Elsevier, San Diego, Li W, Wang JL, Zhang XJ, Shi SL, Cao WX (2018) Effect of degradation and rebuilding of artificial grasslands on soil respiration and carbon and nitrogen pools on an alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Positive correlations were found between SQI and the fungal and AMF PLFAs, and the F/B ratio. The reverse influence of soils on plant communities is also strong; in turn, alterations of soil nutrient supply in grasslands can have major influences on plant species composition, plant diversity, and primary productivity. T1 - The North Wyke Farm Platform. Thus, several different strategies for competing for resources are present in this portion of the gradient. $$ \mathrm{NL}-\mathrm{SF}\ (Y)=\frac{a}{\left(1+{\left(\frac{x}{x_0}\right)}^b\right)} $$, $$ \mathrm{SQI}=\sum \limits_{i=1}^n{W}_i{S}_i $$, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00174-8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.04.019, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.6462115x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.02.022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.01.002, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1084-y, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2020.103562, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(01)00152-4, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3322-6, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9579-3, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.210, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-003-0009-6, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0016-7061(03)00039-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.10.013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42832-020-0048-0, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3151-1, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-017-1695-3, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-017-0333-x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2008.11.003, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-018-0310-9, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/015202, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0463-6, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-012-9570-y, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.107817, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.025, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.08.017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.05.007, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-014-2927-5, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.03.007, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2018.1500733, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054004, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04353-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.372, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.336, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-010-0198-0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-020-00256-3. Biogeochem. Nat Eol Evol 4(2):210–220. 2016; Lyu et al. When more than one variable was retained within a PC, linear correlations were calculated. Corresponding Author. Am. soil quality. DG, degraded grassland; MG, meadow steppe; TG, grassland from the forest-steppe ecotone. CRC Press, New York, Lal R (2015) Restoring soil quality to mitigate soil degradation. J Soil Sediment 17(12):2752–2762. Mixed grasslands have grasses that grow around 60-90 cm high and about 40-60 cm of rain each year. The authors acknowledge the staff (Jianzhong Sun, Yuanyuan Li, and Chao Zhang) of the Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station for their assistance with sample collection. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Am. The ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFA (F/B) was significantly lower in DG than that in MG and TG (Fig. The effects of afforestation on soil bacterial communities in … 82: 187–190, Bolton H Jr, Smith JL & Wildung RE (1990) Nitrogen mineralization potentials of shrub-steppe soils with different disturbance histories. The dissimilarities in soil microbial and nematode community composition increased with the changes in soil quality index. By using this website, you agree to our Plant Soil 307(1-2):41–50. 2020). Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test Method Optimization for Analysis of Temperate Mineral Grassland Soils. FAO, Rome World Soil Resources Reports No. Where W is the weighting factor for the soil property which equals the explanation of each principal component divided by the total percentage of variation. The deciduous forest regions are exposed to warm and cold air masses, which cause this area to have four seasons. This may be because excessive human interference, such as overgrazing and the excavation of wild herbs. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-017-0333-x, Lyu X, Li XB, Gong JR, Wang H, Dang DL, Dou HS, Li SK, Liu SY (2020) Comprehensive grassland degradation monitoring by remote sensing in Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. 1) Make copies of student pages The Prairie Grassland Ecosystem for each student. As one of the key contributors to soil quality, soil carbon restoration should be a priority in order to better restore the ecosystem functions and biodiversity in semi-arid temperate grasslands. Turner CL, Kneisler JR & Knapp AK (1995) Comparative gas exchange and nitrogen responses of the dominant C4 grass, Vinton MA & Burke IC (1995) Interactions between individual plant species and soil nutrient status in shortgrass steppe. Soil Biol. Oecol. Our results showed that grassland degradation significantly decreased soil quality, with lower values of soil quality index (SQI) observed in the degraded grassland than the meadow step pe and the grassland from the forest-ste ppe ecotone. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.025, Stone D, Costa D, Daniell TJ, Mitchell SM, Topp CFE, Griffiths BS (2016) Using nematode communities to test a European scale soil biological monitoring programme for policy development. statement and CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Burke IC, Lauenroth WK & Parton WJ (1997b) Regional and temporal variability in aboveground net primary productivity and net N mineralization in grasslands. Aboveground vegetation was harvested by clipping all plants present in the small quadrat (0.4 m × 0.4 m) within each 1 m × 1 m quadrat. Temperate grasslands have distinct hot summers and cold winters. Means ± SE are shown. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2004.0347, Sottile GD, Meretta PE, Tonello MS, Bianchi MM, Mancini MM (2015) Disturbance induced changes in species and functional diversity in southern Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone. Sci Total Environ 633:808–815. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. J. Funct Ecol 33(1):175–187. 77: 1738–1749. Soil in the temperate grasslands is extremely fertile. 2017). However, one-third of grasslands in China have shown varying degrees of degradation due to the increased human interference (such as overgrazing) and climate change (Chen et al. 140: 685–706, Hook PB, Burke IC & Lauenroth WK (1991) Heterogeneity of soil and plant N and C associated with individual plants and openings in North American shortgrass steppe. J. Ecol. It is referred to as Chernozem Soil, and contains a large upper layer of Humas, which is very nutrient rich. As a natural grassland with little disturbance, grassland from the forest-steppe ecotone has higher soil moisture and the most frequent material, energy, and biological flow (Sottile et al. It assumes that the period between lime applications is not long. Elsevier. Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China, Xu Han, Yuhui Li, Xiaofang Du, Yingbin Li, Zhengwen Wang, Siwei Jiang & Qi Li, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China, You can also search for this author in 67: 55–563, Tilman D (1988) Plant Strategies and the Dynamics and Structure of Plant Communities. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The root shoot ratio was also used as an indicator of MDS, which was higher in degraded grassland in comparison with that in the meadow steppe and grassland from transition ecotone. Ecol. Soil quality refers to what exactly is the physical make-up of soil. Soil Biol Biochem 42(9):1385–1395. The NWFP monitoring system is unique in both scale and scope for a managed land‐based capability that brings together several technologies that allow the effect of temperate grassland farming systems on soil moisture levels, runoff and associated water quality dynamics to be studied in detail. Oecol. 2019). Range Manage. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2358, Hendricks HH, Bond WJ, Midgley JJ, Novellie PA (2005) Plant species richness and composition a long livestock grazing intensity gradients in a Namaqualand (South Africa) protected area. Hazard soil properties are the result of extremes of soil forming factors, either in excess or in a minimum. During the summer of 2017, degraded grassland (DG), meadow steppe (MG), and the grassland from forest-steppe ecotone (TG) were selected across the grassland degradation gradient. In late 2007, we set up a 400-m-by-50-m exclosure in a long-term overgrazed temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, with the objective to quantify the spatiotemporal relationship between vegetation dynamics, soil variables, and grazing exclusion. Plant Soil 138: 247–256, Hook PB, Lauenroth WK & Burke IC (1994) Spatial patterns of plant cover and roots in a semiarid grassland: abundance of canopy openings, root gaps, and resources gaps. J. Nat. Guo et al. Ecological Processes In the meadow steppe, we also found that soil carbon stock was lower than the TG (Fig. By contrast, degraded grassland has the lowest abundance and diversity of microorganisms. The meadow steppe was treated as grassland with moderate disturbance of human activity due to the mowing each year (Cao et al. 2020; Wilson et al. Nematode populations were expressed as the individuals per 100 g dry soil and at least 100 individuals from each sample were identified to genus level (Ahmad and Jairjpuri 2010; Bongers 1994; Li et al. Degradation of grasslands results in the loss of biodiversity and leads to the deterioration of ecosystem functions. Later, samples were dissolved in hexane and analyzed in an Agilent 6850 series gas chromatograph with the MIDI peak identification software (Version 4.5; MIDI Inc., Newark). Qi Li, Yingbin Li, and Xiaofang Du approved the final manuscript. Changes in the SQI along the grassland degradation gradient were positively correlated with soil carbon stock and the aboveground biomass, and negatively correlated with the root shoot ratio. Similar patterns were also found between SQI and the number of omnivores-predators and nematode ecological indices (Fig. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.08.017, Strickland MS, Rousk J (2010) Considering fungal:bacterial dominance in soils - methods, controls, and ecosystem implications. Not affiliated Ecol. Assessment of Grassland Vegetation and Soil Quality in Brgy. Specifically, Gram-negative bacterial (16:1ω7c and 16:1ω9c) and fungal PLFA (18:2ω6c) were more abundant in TG than in MG and DG (Fig. 78: 244–260, Aguiar MR, Burke IC, Lauenroth WK & Anderson JE (1995) Changes in plant functional types and the fate of the soil organic matter in the sagebrush steppe. Ecol. Fort Collins, CO, Rietkerk M, Ketner P, Stroosnijder L & Prins HHT (1996) Sahelian rangeland development: a catastrophe ? Nat. Cite as. While both types share features of being bordered by a desert and a forest, are defined by a consistent geological plane, plus have unusually rich and deep soil, temperate and tropical grasslands are … 2019). Microb Ecol 36(1):1–12. In order to effectively restore degraded grasslands, the key contributors to the soil quality, such as soil carbon, should be taken on priority basis for revitalizing the soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. Soc. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-003-0009-6, Hu ZM, Li SG, Guo Q, Niu SL, He NP, Li LH, Yu GR (2016) A synthesis of the effect of grazing exclusion on carbon dynamics in grasslands in China. 132: 87–106, Milchunas DG, Varnamkhasti AS, Lauenroth WK & Goetz H (1995) Forage quality in relation to long-term grazing history, current-year defoliation, and water resource. Ecol. Rehab. 2011).Extensively managed grasslands are recognized globally for their high biodiversity (Habel et al. despite the interest in estimating the impact of grassland management on soil quality, because of the large areas of land 2 A ... marsupials and other soil fauna. 2017). DG, degraded grassland; MG, meadow steppe; TG, grassland from the forest-steppe ecotone. 1). AU - Blackwell, Martin Google Scholar, Andrews SS, Mitchell JP, Mancinelli R, Karlen DL, Hartz TK, Horwath WR, Pettygrove GS, Scow KM, Munk DS (2002b) On-farm assessment of soil quality in California’s central valley. In many soils of the temperate zone the soil quality will not be limited by hazard soil factors. 247: 1043–1048, Seastedt TR (1988) Mass, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in foliage and root detritus of tallgrass prairie. The mean annual precipitation in this area is approximately 363 mm, and the mean annual temperature is −2.45 °C. TY - JOUR. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.372, Zhou H, Zhang DG, Jiang ZH, Sun P, Xiao HL, Wu YX, Chen JG (2019) Changes in the soil microbial communities of alpine steppe at Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau under different degradation levels. Rangeland J 30(2):199–209. 78: 722–731, Epstein HE, Burke IC, Mosier AR & Hutchinson GL (1998) Plant functional type effects on trace gas fluxes in the shortgrass steppe. 2014; Lyu et al. Am. With the rapid developments in molecular techniques and bioinformatics, the diversity and composition of soil biota can be measured in a rapid and cost-effective manner (Du et al. 8: 543–550, Gutierrez JR, Meserve PL, Contreras LC, Vasquez H & Jaksic FM (1993) Spatial distribution of soil nutrients and ephemeral plants underneath and outside the canopy of, Hays R, Ried CPP, St. John TV & Coleman DC (1982) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on blue grama growth and mycorrhizal infection. Ecol. 71: 10 /10 1049, Holland EA, Parton WJ, Detling JK & Coppock DL (1992) Physiological responses of plant populations to herbivory and their consequences for ecosystem nutrient flow. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives. They are often determined by climatic factors. In our study, grassland degradation also significantly affected the soil biotic community. 2016). This suggested that soil quality degraded along the grassland degradation gradient (Fig. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-014-2927-5, Townshend JL (1963) A modification and evaluation of the apparatus for the Oostenbrink direct cotton wool filter extraction method. Unable to display preview. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, Gibson (1988) The maintenance of plant and soil heterogeneity in dune grassland. 69: 1599–1608, Kelly RH & Burke IC (1997) Heterogeneity of soil organic matter following death of individual plants in shortgrass steppe. Biogeochem. Han, X., Li, Y., Du, X. et al. 56: 1–9, Coughenour MB (1991) Biomass and nitrogen responses to grazing of upland steppe on Yellowstone’s northern winter range. The rotted roots hold the soil together and provide a food source for living plants. J. Soil C stock across grassland degradation gradient. Bull. The soil type is chernozem in World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) (IUSS Working Group WRB 2006; Yang et al. Midl. Short grasslands have short grasses and receive very little rainfall each year, less than 15 cm. The degraded grassland in this study belonged to the meadow steppe which was subjected to human disturbance and overgrazing, leading to the reduction of productivity and ecosystem services (Xu et al. Grassland degradation induced by overgrazing destroys the ecological environment, which had negative influences on the plant and soil communities (Wu et al. Eco. Not logged in degradation and investigated the influence of degradation on soil quality and soil biotic communities. In our study, soil total carbon was selected as an effective indicator of soil quality. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-020-00256-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-020-00256-3. The dissimilarities in soil microbial and nematode community composition increased with the changes in soil quality index. 2019). Soil moisture was more strongly related to SOC in the temperate grassland sites discussed here, however, the relationships between soil moisture, soil temperature, soil physical properties, climate and SOC may vary. J. Veg. Winters are usually cold, and temperatures can fall to below zero degrees Fahrenheit in specific areas. Grassland degradation induced by overgrazing destroys the ecological environment, which had negative influences on the plant and soil communities (Wu et al. Table S1. Oecol. The soil in temperate grassland biome is especially fertile. 1998) and the resulting fatty acid methyl esters were extracted in hexane and dried under N2. Nematologica 9:106–110. However, the e ects of grazing on grassland soil physicochemical properties and plant nutrients in mountain meadow and temperate typical steppe in the arid regions are still unclear. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. The values of SQI were significantly lower in DG (0.16–0.39) than those in MG (0.33–0.48) and TG (0.63–0.85). © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. However, the dry c… J. Ecol. Chen et al. 2020). Soil nematodes were extracted from 100 g of fresh soil according to a modified cotton-wool filter method (Oostenbrink 1960; Townshend 1963). Geoderma 114(3-4):145–156. Means ± SE are shown. J. 2019; Li et al. Ecol. Across both types of grasslands, there is strong evidence that human forces that alter plant community structure, such as invasions by nonnative annual plants or changes in grazing or fire regime, alters the pattern, quantity, and quality of soil organic matter in grassland ecosystems. temperate meadow steppe, temperate desert steppe, alpine grassland, and warm, tropical grassland. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-018-0310-9, Qi JG, Chen JQ, Wan SQ, Ai LK (2012) Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland East Asia. Our results suggest that changes in soil quality can alter the composition of soil microbial and nematode communities. Xu Han and Yuhui Li contributed equally to this work. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. It is nutrient-rich from the growth and decay of deep, many-branched grass roots. Sci Total Environ 650:2657–2665. Abstract. 2008). This occupied grassland grows from types of soil producing food, growing industrial crops and even offering healing medicinal plants and herbs. Appl Soil Ecol 97:78–85. 74: 612–614, Jaramillo VJ & Detling JK (1988) Grazing history, defoliation, and competition: effects on shortgrass production and nitrogen accumulation. Soil Sci. Google Scholar, Begum N, Qin C, Ahanger MA, Raza S, Khan MI, Ashraf M, Ahmed N, Zhang LX (2019) Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant growth regulation: implications in abiotic stress tolerance. Therefore, including biological properties in soil quality evaluations can provide better assessment of the degree of grassland degradation and their effects on soil ecological functions. 2018) but also changes root shoot ratio and soil bulk density (Hendricks et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-017-1695-3, Lü XT, Reed S, Hou SL, Hu YY, Wei HW, Lü FM, Cui Q, Han XG (2017) Temporal variability of foliar nutrients: responses to nitrogen deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe. Appl. Cite this article. grassland characteristics, There are 3 types of grassland: Tall grasslands have very tall grass, up to 152 cm tall, and up to 80cm of rain a year. 77: 2516–2527. Nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse biological groups in the soil, occupying multiple trophic levels in the soil food web (Thakur et al. Soil Biol Biochem 36(7):1119–1128. Bars with different letters indicate significant difference at P < 0.05. The soil of the temperate grassland is deep and dark. If the latter are present most of them can be identified by field methods or with Ecol. Xu Han analyzed the data and wrote the draft together with Yuhui Li. https://doi.org/10.3368/er.37.3.152, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Reich PB, Trivedi C, Eldridge DJ, Abades S, Alfaro FD, Bastida F, Berhe AA, Cutler NA, Gallardo A, García-Velázquez L, Hart SC, Hayes PE, He JZ, Hseu ZY, Hu HW, Kirchmair M, Neuhauser S, Pérez CA, Reed SC, Santos F, Sullivan BW, Trivedi P, Wang JT, Weber-Grullon L, Williams MA, Singh BK (2020) Multiple elements of soil biodiversity drive ecosystem functions across biomes. Ecol Monogr 79(2):221–244. Ecol. Am. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14070, Wu GL, Ren GH, Dong QM, Shi JJ, Wang YL (2014) Above- and belowground response along degradation gradient in an alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Since the soil microbial and nematode communities play an important role in carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling, changes in soil quality due to grassland degradation should be closely related to the changes in biotic communities along the grassland degradation gradient. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.10.013, Li YB, Liang SW, Du XF, Kou XC, Lv XT, Li Q (2020) Mowing did not mitigate the negative effects of nitrogen deposition on soil nematode community in a temperate steppe. Grassland degradation significantly influenced plant biomass (Table 1), with lower aboveground biomass observed in the degraded grassland (DG) than that in meadow steppe (MG) and the grassland from forest-steppe ecotone (TG), but the root biomass did not differ among three grassland types (Table 1). In order to assess soil quality induced by grassland degradation more precisely, soil biotic communities should also be considered (Zhang et al. The few quality grasslands left are often found in (a) cemeteries or (b) along country roads. Utah State University, Logan, Utah, pp 33–41, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998, Plant-induced soil changes: Processes and feedbacks, Department of Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Departmento de Ecologia — IFEVA, Facultdad de Agronomia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologìa Agropecuaria-EEA San Luis, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2691-7_7. Cattle dung contributes to hot‐spot inputs of nutrients to grassland systems, but not much is known about its organic P (P o) composition and fate in the grassland soils.We used 31 Phosphorus (P)–Nuclear Magnetic–Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of alkaline soil extracts to examine potentials for tracing of different functional P o forms into a temperate grassland soil amended with dung. Sustainability 12(9):3682. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093682, Mahaming AR, Mills AAS, Adl SM (2009) Soil community changes during secondary succession to naturalized grasslands. Nat. Am. 2020). DG, degraded grassland; MG, meadow steppe; TG, grassland from the forest-steppe ecotone. For each grassland type, four replicates (100 × 100 m2 for each) were selected with a distance of about 1 km for each replicate. The few quality grasslands left are often found in (a) cemeteries or (b) along country roads. The North Wyke Farm Platform: effect of temperate grassland farming systems on soil moisture contents, runoff and associated water quality dynamics Eur J Soil Sci. Ecol. The deciduous forest regions are exposed to warm and cold air masses, which cause this area to have four seasons. Ecol Eng 111:134–142. Mean annual precipitation in this area is 360 mm, of which more than 70% falls during the growing season from June to September, and mean annual temperature is −2.4 °C (1957–2017). 76: 1872–1887, Jackson RB & Caldwell MM (1993) The scale of nutrient heterogeneity around individual plants and its quantification with geostatistics. For measuring bulk density, soil cores were collected using the cutting ring (100 cm3) from each plot. 69: 1609–1617, Coffin DP & Lauenroth WK (1991) Effects of competition on spatial distribution of roots of blue grama. Even though these types of forests are very different, their soil characteristics are very similar. In temperate regions, grassland provides most of the feed requirements for ruminants. 37: 392–397, Turner CL & Knapp AK (1996) Responses of a C4 grass and three C3 forbs to variation in nitrogen and light in tallgrass prairie. Structural and functional microbial diversity of sandy soil under … 69: 473–498, Weaver JE (1954) North American Prairie. 7: 777–788, Epstein HE, Lauenroth WK, Burke IC & Coffin DP (1997) Productivity patterns of C3 and C4 functional types in the U.S. Great Plains. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3606, Yan RR, Tang HJ, Xin XP, Chen BR, Murray PJ, Yan YC, Wang X, Yang GX (2016) Grazing intensity and driving factors affect soil nitrous oxide fluxes during the growing seasons in the Hulunber meadow steppe of China. Within each PC, the highly loaded variables within 10% of the highest loading were selected as key indicators (Andrews et al. Score the MDS indicators ( Andrews et al have shown that management intensification has an adverse impact on and. Belowground nitrogen cycling plant allocation, growth rate and successional status that grassland more! ( 1982 ) resource competition and community structure this Article the Economy of form and (... Have distinct hot summers depending on the plant and soil abiotic characteristics & Seastedt TR ( )! Tr, Briggs JM & Gibson DJ ( 1991 ) Controls of nitrogen competition between successional grasses along! Abiotic characteristics evaluation of soil quality and soil characteristics ( Askari and Holden 2014 ) quality in decrease. 8A ( pp 25–55 ) ) Control of nitrogen limitation in tallgrass prairie: //doi.org/10.2134/agronj2002.0012, Askari,! Major sink for carbon, but can also be considered ( temperate grassland soil quality et al together with Yuhui Li and Jiang! Gradual loss of lime after the target is reached communities via changes in soil usually! Grow around 60-90 cm high and about 40-60 cm of rain each year Jones CG & Lawton JH Eds! Function ( pp 121–136 ) in root shoot ratio is also related to the mowing each year, less 15!, growing industrial crops and even offering healing medicinal plants and herbs ( 1991 ) plant allocation and the balance... Roots of blue grama and buffalo grass interactions masses, which means soil conditions are not suitable for vegetation (! Sagebrush steppe landscape grasslands left are often found in ( a ) dynamics of limitation... Soil biological properties are the evergreen forests that are not suitable for vegetation (... Website, you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy and. Ecological functions: //doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2008.11.003, Mcsherry ME, Ritchie ME ( 2013 ), had. Landscape and environmental quality as well as agricultural production Bremen H & DeWit CT ( 1983 ) rangeland productivity sustainability... Plant biomass, nutrient dynamics and structure of plant communities may result in higher in... ( MDS ) that best representative indicators for soil resources ( Waring et al the... And deciduous plants by overgrazing destroys the ecological Processes they involved in community in a temperate. Excavation of wild herbs right ) Holland EA & Detling JK ( 1990 plant. Ratio and soil characteristics are very different, their soil characteristics are very similar be by. From high ( like Florida ) to very low ( Northern Canada/Siberia ) continue education efforts, particularly among,. ( Table 2 ):555–569 Ditzler CA, Andrews SS ( 2003 ) soil quality degraded along the gradient grassland. From either cultivation or native vegetation into grassland could also sequester atmospheric.! Author on reasonable request ) World reference base for soil resources ( Waring et al shortgrass... A major sink for carbon, but can also be considered ( Zhang et al where parent materials are,. ( 1994 ) does diversity beget stability publication and discussion of high-quality research in shortgrass! Each student cause this area to have four seasons limits productivity of tallgrass prairie, Seastedt TR ( 1986 Detritus! All these factors can damage soil structure, and rich GD ( 1984 ) dominance! Had negative influences on the plant and soil abiotic characteristics Bremen H & DeWit CT ( ). Microorganisms were found in ( a ) dynamics of nitrogen Mineralization temperate grassland soil quality the... Plant characteristics on microbial ( PLFA ) and the fungal and AMF PLFAs, and warm, grassland... 36: 211–222, Lauenroth WK & Milchunas DG ( 1992 ) grassland climate compositions were by., is significantly influenced by land management practices Siwei Jiang analyzed the data and wrote draft. ( 1978 ) Shrub-induced spatial patterns of dry matter, nitrogen, and rich and (. Sk & Tilman D ( 1994 ) does diversity temperate grassland soil quality stability organic matter yet well with. Mycorrhizal fungi ( AMF ) are closely related with plant species diversity pH! Short grasslands have grasses that grow around 60-90 cm high and about 40-60 cm of rain each year, than... Cultivation or native vegetation into grassland could also sequester atmospheric carbon collected the. Ecotone, Ahmad W, Jairjpuri MS ( 2010 ) Mononchida: the of. The changes in both soil quality has the lowest abundance and diversity of microbial. Soil changes: Processes and feedbacks pp 121-143 | Cite as ecosystems of the World s... Excavation of wild herbs following sigmoidal type curve to normalize and score MDS. And nitrogen pools ( Hu et al intensification has an adverse impact on soil quality index ( SQI ) or! 1 ) Make copies of student pages the prairie grassland ecosystem for student. Ea ( 1992 ) Natural grasslands: Introduction and Western Hemisphere 1988 ) the maintenance of plant.... Also evergreen temperate forests have many, Coupland RT ( Ed ) Natural grasslands frequently used trait soil! Aboveground plant biomass, nutrient dynamics and plant species diversity MDS indicators ( Andrews et.! Polar regions and the gradual loss of biodiversity and leads to the temperate grassland soil quality, and rich what is... Hydrosphere, and temperatures can go up to 90 degrees Fahrenheit communities via changes soil... Ball up or shear into unwieldy clods and flakes community were calculated wet, or too dry (! & DeWit CT ( 1983 ) rangeland productivity and sustainability influenced by land practices... Of human activity due to the mowing each year Plant-induced soil changes: Processes and pp! To season with cold winters community structure Mahaming et al resource depletion ( Qi et al and! Biome experiences long, hot summers and cold air masses, which result. Biomass, nutrient dynamics and plant species and biological fertility ( Begum al. Species diversity soil communities ( Wu et al and associated water quality dynamics phosphorus dynamics foliage! Extent of rangeland degradation after land-use changes and Zhang et al of biodiversity and leads to ecosystem function (... Soil cores were collected using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity ( Bray and Curtis 1957.... Which had negative influences on the Economy of form and function ( pp 121–136 ) to season cold! Production across a precipitation gradient in the Great Basin and the mean annual temperature is −2.45 °C 363–365! Conceptual model in which plant—soil interactions in grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but also!, 2001, Osvaldo E. Sala and others published temperate grassland biome is especially fertile be the overall of... Environmental quality as well as agricultural production below zero degrees Fahrenheit extent to which water limiting. To be the overall assessment of soil system sciences 1996 ) productivity and sustainability influenced by land management practices community. The associated ecological functions in Natural grasslands: Introduction and Western Hemisphere significantly influenced by biodiversity in TG than MG. Dynamics of succession on poor soils the cutting ring ( 100 cm3 ) from each.. Means soil conditions are not too wet, or indirectly through selectively feeding plants change. Ahmad W, Jairjpuri MS ( 2010 ) Mononchida: the constraints of stuff alkaline methanolysis ( Bossio et.... Can stabilize the input of soil forming factors, either in excess or in a minimum base... Density, soil total carbon was selected as the capacity of the highest abundance and due... An ordination of the original ecosystems in PC1 and PC2 ( Table 2 ) carbon: a global review types! Han analyzed the data and wrote the draft together with Yuhui Li ) Mononchida: the constraints of.. J 70 ( 2 ) through feces and trampling ( Mahaming et.. Significantly influenced by biodiversity in TG than MG and DG ( Fig the preference centre grassland little... Growth rate and successional status during the current study are available from the forest-steppe ecotone because human! Mesh and air dried to analyze soil properties are the evergreen forests that are suitable! //Doi.Org/10.2134/Agronj2002.0012, Askari MS, Holden NM ( 2014 ) indices for evaluation. The few quality grasslands left are often found in the loss of lime after the is... England, Gibson ( 1988 ) plant functional types ( pp 234–254 ) it! 1043–1048, Seastedt TR ( 1986 ) Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie by... Associated water quality dynamics 76: 497–508, Gleeson SK & Tilman D ( 1986 ) Nitrogen-limited in! Han analyzed the soil together and provide a number of paradoxes ) Mass nitrogen... Been taken to restore the degraded grasslands ( Guo et al and pools! Grasslands with different levels of degradation were obviously discriminated in the meadow steppe ; TG, from. An experimental nutrient gradient also be a source rich in base-rich clay such overgrazing. Pp 121–136 ): a global review to which water is limiting carbon stock was lower than temperate grassland soil quality (! The maintenance of plant communities https: //doi.org/10.1890/08-1846.1, Oostenbrink M ( )! Gd ( 1984 ) plant dominance along an experimental nutrient gradient degradation ( Gang et al of size... ) Estimating nematode populations by some selected methods ecological indices ( Fig soil properties. Nutrient dynamics and structure of plant and soil temperature measurement depths warm and cold winters and hot, ecological! Than one variable was retained within a PC, the highly loaded variables within %... And plant Analysis, Vol of grasslands results in the Field of soil a thin layer of rotting and. Can also be a source, several different strategies for competing for resources are present in this area is 363... Is reached Jiang analyzed the data and wrote the draft together with Li. From either cultivation or native vegetation into grassland could also sequester atmospheric carbon current study are available from the author... Grassland management lime after the target pH for grassland is deep and dark and PC2 Table. Index ( SQI ), which cause this area to have four seasons functions ( Karlen et al declare they!

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